Modern Dickens criticism dates from 1940-41, with the very different impulses given by George Orwell, Edmund Wilson, and Humphry House. In the 1950s, a substantial reassessment and reediting of the works began, his finest artistry and greatest depth now being discovered in the later novels -Bleak House, Little Dorrit, and Great Expectations- and (less unanimously) in Hard Times and Our Mutual Friend. Scholars have explored his working methods, his relations with his public, and the ways in which he was simultaneously an eminently Victorian figure and author "not of an age but for all time." Biographically, little had been added to Forster's massive and intelligent Life (1872.-74), except the Ellen Ternan story, until Edgar Johnson's in 1952. Since then, no radically new view has emerged, though several works -including those by Joseph Gold (1972) and Fred Kaplan (1975)- have given particular phases or aspects fuller attention. The centenary in 1970 demodtrated a critical consensus about his standing second only to William Shakespeare in English Literature, which would have seemed incredible 40 or even 20 years earlier.