According to M. H. Abrams´ work: The Mirror and The Lamp, we can divide any work into four areas of study:

                               -relationship between the universe and the work.

                               -relationship between the author and the work.

                               -relationship between the audience and the work.

                               -relationships within the work.

But, of these areas, new critics think that the only thing that must be studied is the last one: the work itself, because we cannot know the true nature of the author or the audience.

According to these principles, Ransom distinguished three basic types of poetry:

                                -thing. Which conveys emotional or aesthetic responses. Exm.: Wallace Stevens.

           -platonic. Based in the world of ideas. Exm: Victorian poetry.

                                -metaphysical. About things that generate ideas. Exm.: Romantics.

He also distinguished between two kinds of language:

                                                                             -democratic. Centered in the individual.

                                                                             -totalitarian. Explanatory, practical and authoritarian.

But their main difference is that of between presentation and explanation.

He is also useful because of two aspects: shows important ideas, and explains "how far one can get in criticsm while staying within the critiqued work."