According to M. H. Abrams´ work: The Mirror and The Lamp, we can divide any work into four areas of study:
-relationship between the universe and the work.
-relationship between the author and the work.
-relationship between the audience and the work.
-relationships within the work.
But, of these areas, new critics think that the only thing that must be studied is the last one: the work itself, because we cannot know the true nature of the author or the audience.
According to these principles, Ransom distinguished three basic types of poetry:
-thing. Which conveys emotional or aesthetic responses. Exm.: Wallace Stevens.
-platonic. Based in the world of ideas. Exm: Victorian poetry.
-metaphysical. About things that generate ideas. Exm.: Romantics.
He also distinguished between two kinds of language:
-democratic. Centered in the individual.
-totalitarian. Explanatory, practical and authoritarian.
But their main difference is that of between presentation and explanation.
He is also useful because
of two aspects: shows important ideas, and explains "how far one can get
in criticsm while staying within the critiqued work."
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